Robot industrial [Mechanical engineering]

Robot industrial

Industrial robot

Articulated industrial robot operating in a foundry.

An industrial robot is defined by ISO 8373 as an . The field of robotics may be more practically defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing (a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of robot).

Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly, pick and place (such as packaging, palletizing and SMT), product inspection, and testing; all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.

Types and features[edit]

Factory Automation with industrial robots for palletizing food products like bread and toast at a bakery in Germany

The most commonly used robot configurations are articulated robots, SCARA robots, delta robots and cartesian coordinate robots, (gantry robots or x-y-z robots). In the context of general robotics, most types of robots would fall into the category of robotic arms (inherent in the use of the word manipulator in ISO standard 1738). Robots exhibit varying degrees of autonomy:

  • Some robots are programmed to faithfully carry out specific actions over and over again (repetitive actions) without variation and with a high degree of accuracy. These actions are determined by programmed routines that specify the direction, acceleration, velocity, deceleration, and distance of a series of coordinated motions.
  • Other robots are much more flexible as to the orientation of the object on which they are operating or even the task that has to be performed on the object itself, which the robot may even need to identify. For example, for more precise guidance, robots often contain machine vision sub-systems acting as their visual sensors, linked to powerful computers or controllers.Artificial intelligence, or what passes for it, is becoming an increasingly important factor in the modern industrial robot.

History of industrial robotics[edit]

The earliest known industrial robot, conforming to the ISO definition was completed by "Bill" Griffith P. Taylor in 1937 and published in Meccano Magazine, March 1938. The crane-like device was built almost entirely using Meccano parts, and powered by a single electric motor. Five axes of movement were possible, including grab and grab rotation. Automation was achieved using punched paper tape to energise solenoids, which would facilitate the movement of the crane's control levers. The robot could stack wooden blocks in pre-programmed patterns. The number of motor revolutions required for each desired movement was first plotted on graph paper. This information was then transferred to the paper tape, which was also driven by the robot's single motor. Chris Shute built a complete replica of the robot in 1997.

Positioning by Cartesian coordinates may be done by entering the coordinates into the system or by using a teach pendant which moves the robot in X-Y-Z directions. It is much easier for a human operator to visualize motions up/down, left/right, etc. than to move each joint one at a time. When the desired position is reached it is then defined in some way particular to the robot software in use, e.g. P1 - P5 below.

See also:


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FAQ

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What is an industrial robot? Industrial Robots.

Manufacturing can be a very labor-intensive process. However, with advances in technology and especially in robotics, some manufacturing processes require less employees, are more efficient, and can operate twenty-four hours a day without breaks. Companies that can afford industrial robots see a dramatic rise in production, higher throughput, and increased profitability.

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